Perfumes are used to make a person or an object smell good. The smell is produced from the essential oils extracted from plants or animals. The smell is typically used to mask unpleasant odors. The scent is also used in perfumed soaps, bath gels, shampoos and other toiletries.
For centuries, fragrances were produced using natural ingredients. In recent times, synthetic perfumes have become more common. These synthetic perfumes are created in labs by perfume chemists. This allows the perfumers to save money by avoiding the extraction of natural oils. The cost savings have allowed for more freedom in the production of perfumes.
In the past, men and women were expected to wear the same scent. However, in the nineteenth century, a deodorizing drive led to a decrease in the popularity of perfume. This was also reflected in the packaging. The bottles were often elaborate and animal-shaped. This image was crucial to marketing.
In the 17th century, the Europeans discovered the healing properties of fragrances. King Louis XIV was known as “the perfume king.” He scented all public places and made a floral pavilion in his court.
Perfume is made up of three main notes: the top note, the middle note and the base note. The top note is the first impression a person has of the fragrance. The middle note appears between two and eight minutes after the application and the base note is the last expression.
A person uses perfume to enhance their mood. These types of fragrances are available in several concentrations. A full perfume is composed of 10-20 percent perfume oil dissolved in alcohol. Usually, water is added to the mixture as well. This gives the scent a longer lasting effect.
The perfumer has to be a meticulous chemist. The master perfumer creates a fragrance by blending a number of ingredients together. The most expensive fragrances are created from natural ingredients.
There are two basic methods for extracting essential oils: steam distillation and maceration. The latter method is similar to enfleurage. This involves spreading the flowers on grease-coated glass. The resulting liquid is then distilled to get the oil.
A perfume can have hundreds of ingredients. These may include tens of thousands of different compounds. The scent may be described as floral, woody, musk, amber, vanilla, or something else. The composition of these fragrances is complex and can take a number of years to be developed.
The fragrances are mixed with various solvents and alcohol to give them their smell. The scents are then stored in bottles or atomizers. There are more than 2500 fragrances used in cosmetics. In the United States, the market for perfume is one of the largest in the world. It is estimated that the perfume market is worth several billion dollars.
The main difference between perfume and cologne is in the concentration of the essential oils contained in the fragrance base. Colognes generally contain 3 to 5% of oil diluted in 80 to 90 percent of alcohol.